Ancient Egypt:

  • 3100 BCE: Ancient Egypt, one of the world's oldest civilisations, emerges along the banks of the Nile River.
  • 3100–2686 BCE: The Early Dynastic Period witnesses the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under the pharaoh Narmer.
  • 2686–2181 BCE: The Old Kingdom sees the construction of monumental pyramids at Giza, such as the Great Pyramid of Khufu. Pharaoh Djoser's reign introduced the first step pyramid at Saqqara, marking a shift in architectural style.
  • 2055–1650 BCE: The Middle Kingdom brings stability and the development of art, literature and trade.
  • 1550–1070 BCE: Pharaoh Hatshepsut, the most famous – but not first – female pharaoh, rules during the New Kingdom and expands Egypt's trade and influence.
  • 1353–1331 BCE: Pharaoh Akhenaten attempts to establish a monotheistic religion centred on worshipping the sun god Aten during his reign.
  • 1332–1323 BCE: Tutankhamun, a famous pharaoh, ascends to the throne at a young age and is known for his tomb's discovery, filled with treasures.
  • 1279–1213 BCE: Ramses II, also known as Ramses the Great, reigns for an estimated 66 years during the 19th Dynasty and leaves a significant architectural legacy.
  • 1200–1000 BCE: The Iron Age brings external invasions, including the Libyans, Kushites, Assyrians, Persians, and Greeks.

Ptolemaic and Roman Period:

  • 305–30 BCE: The Ptolemaic era witnesses the blending of Egyptian and Hellenistic cultures under the rule of the Ptolemaic Dynasty.
  • 51–30 BCE: Cleopatra VII, the last pharaoh of Egypt, forms alliances with Julius Caesar and Mark Antony in her struggle for power.
  • 30 BCE: Egypt falls under Roman rule after Cleopatra's death by suicide, marking the beginning of the Roman period.
  • 30 BCE–641 CE: Christianity spreads in Egypt during the Roman era, and the country becomes an important centre for early Christian thought.

Early Islamic Period:

  • 641 CE: Muslim Arabs conquer Egypt and introduce Islam, leading to the widespread decline of Christianity and the rise of Arab culture. The introduction of Islam leads to a flourishing of arts, sciences and a rich cultural heritage. The Coptic community continues to practice Christianity.
  • 969–1171 CE: The Fatimid Caliphate establishes Cairo as its capital and constructs iconic landmarks such as Al-Azhar Mosque. Cairo becomes a centre for Islamic learning and culture.
  • 1174 CE: Salah al-Din (Saladin) becomes the first Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt and successfully repels the Crusaders from the region.
  • 1250–1517 CE: The Mamluks, a Turkic slave caste, rules Egypt and defends the region against Mongol invasions.

Ottoman Rule and Modernisation:

  • 1517: The Ottoman Empire gains control of Egypt, ruling it for over 400 years. The Ottoman administrative system is established in Egypt, including the appointment of a governor (Bey) and the division of the country into provinces.
  • 17th Century: Emergence of the Mamluk Beys as power brokers, effectively sharing power with the Ottoman governor, leading to a unique dual administration system in Egypt.
  • 1769–1773: Ali Bey al-Kabir's rebellion against the Ottoman Empire, an early assertion of Egyptian autonomy.
  • 1798: Napoleon Bonaparte invades Egypt, sparking interest in Egyptology and contributing to European influence in the region.
  • 1798–1801: The French occupation under Napoleon which ends with the Ottoman and British forces expelling the French. This event significantly influences the political and social landscape of Egypt and begins a period of closer interaction with European powers.
  • 1805–1848: Muhammad Ali Pasha's rule, recognised as the founder of modern Egypt. His military, administrative, and social reforms lay the groundwork for the modernisation of Egypt, including the establishment of a modern army and bureaucracy.
  • 1839–1841: The Oriental Crisis, where Muhammad Ali Pasha's expansionist policies challenge the Ottoman Empire, leading to European intervention and the eventual consolidation of Ottoman rule over Egypt, albeit with significant autonomy for Muhammad Ali and his successors.
  • 1869: Completion of the Suez Canal, a pivotal event enhancing Egypt's geopolitical and economic importance.

British Occupation and Nationalism:

  • 1869–1879: Rule of Khedive Ismail, marked by ambitious modernisation projects, including the modernisation of Cairo, but leading to a national debt crisis.
  • 1875: Egypt's financial crisis reaches a critical point, and Ismail is forced to sell Egypt's shares in the Suez Canal to the British government.
  • 1879: The deposition of Khedive Ismail by the Ottoman Sultan, under pressure from European creditors, and the appointment of his son Tewfik Pasha, which marks the beginning of direct European control over Egypt's finances.
  • 1881–1882: The Urabi Revolt, a nationalist uprising against Khedive Tewfik and European influence, led by Colonel Ahmed Urabi. This revolt is a significant precursor to the British occupation.
  • 1882: British occupation begins with Egypt becoming a protectorate and the British effectively controlling the country's administration, military and finances.
  • 1919: The British occupation sparks resistance movements and nationalist sentiments among Egyptians, which grow stronger over time and eventually paved the way for the Egyptian Revolution.
  • 1882–1922: During British control, Egypt witnesses the growth of a national press, the formation of political organisations, and the emergence of intellectuals and nationalist leaders who lay the foundations for future struggles for independence.
  • 1914–1918: Egypt's role in World War I as a British protectorate, including the contribution of Egyptian labour and soldiers.
  • 1919–1922: The 1919 Revolution, led by Saad Zaghloul and the Wafd Party, demanding independence from British rule. This movement results in the recognition of Egypt's nominal independence in 1922 but with continued British military presence and influence.

Modern Egypt:

  • 1922: Egypt gains nominal independence, but British influence remains significant.
  • 1922–1936: King Fuad I becomes Egypt's first monarch following independence, ruling until 1936. There is a struggle for full sovereignty and constitutional governance, marked by the tension between the Wafd Party, the monarchy, and the British.
  • 1936: King Farouk succeeds Fuad I and faces increasing political corruption and social unrest during his reign.
  • 1939–1945: World War II brings significant changes to Egypt, as it serves as an important Allied base and witnesses clashes with Axis forces in North Africa.
  • 1952: The Egyptian Revolution takes place, led by a group of military officers known as the Free Officers Movement. They overthrow King Farouk and establish a republic.
  • 1956: The charismatic Gamal Abdel Nasser emerges as a prominent leader and becomes Egypt's second president.
  • 1956–1970: Nasser's leadership promotes social reforms, land redistribution, industrialisation and the construction of the Aswan High Dam. Nasser plays a key role in the establishment of the Non-Aligned Movement and seeks to unite Arab nations against Israeli aggression. Nasser also nationalises the Suez Canal, which leads to the Suez Crisis and military intervention by Britain, France and Israel.
  • 1970: Nasser's sudden death results in Anwar Sadat assuming the presidency. Sadat pursues a policy of economic liberalisation, known as the Infitah, which aims to attract foreign investment and open up the economy. In the stage of the Cold War, Sadat's succession marks a change in allegiances from pro-Soviet to pro-American.
  • 1973: Egypt launches a surprise attack on Israel in what becomes known as the Yom Kippur War, leading to initial Egyptian military success and eventually paving the way for peace negotiations.
  • 1977: Sadat makes a historic visit to Israel and signs the Camp David Accords in 1978, becoming the first Arab state to establish peace with Israel and securing the return of the Sinai Peninsula.
  • 1981: Sadat's efforts for peace are met with widespread unrest, and Islamist extremists assassinate him during a military parade.
  • 1981–2011: Hosni Mubarak assumes the presidency and governs Egypt for nearly three decades, focusing on economic reforms, but faces criticism for his authoritarian rule and human rights abuses.
  • 2011: The Egyptian Revolution erupts, driven by widespread discontent, demands for democracy and opposition to Mubarak's regime. The revolution leads to Mubarak's ousting, marking a significant turning point in Egypt's modern history.

Post-revolution:

  • 2012: Egypt experiences a period of political transitions, including the rise of the Muslim Brotherhood and the election of Mohamed Morsi as Egypt's first democratically elected president.
  • 2013: However, Morsi's presidency is short-lived, as he is deposed by a military coup, led by then Defence Minister Abdel Fattah El-Sisi.
  • 2014: El-Sisi becomes president and implements economic reforms but faces criticism for restricting political freedoms and human rights.
  • 2018: President Sisi wins a second term against a single candidate, with other challengers either getting arrested or withdrawing from the presidential race.
  • 2018–Present: Egypt continues to grapple with political challenges, social change, and economic development as it seeks stability and progress in the 21st century.

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